- Menstruation or Menses: Cycle, Phases, Signs and Problems
- 1. What is menstruation?
- 2. Menstruation cycle:
- 3. Signs of menstruation:
- 4. Menstruation problems:
- 5. Disclaimer:
Menstruation or Menses: Cycle, Phases, Signs and Problems
Every female has a monthly cycle which is commonly known as periods of month. In medical terms, it is called menstruation. It is a monthly cycle of the female reproductive system due to ongoing changes of hormones in the female body.
1. What is menstruation?
The menstruation cycle occurs when the lining of the uterus (endometrium) is lost. The endometrium breaks down and also produces a bloody material that passes through the cervix (the cervix) into the vaginal area. This process usually takes four to eight days. It is triggered by a sharp decrease in the production of hormonal agents from the ovaries, especially progesterone. This decrease in the hormonal agent level leads to an inflammatory response in the lining of the uterus that leads to a fall. The endometrium looks a lot like a wound that hasn’t fully healed yet, as well as blood loss. The loss of endometrium and also regrowth is called menstruation.
Menstruation is a bloody discharge from the vagina which comes after an interval of 28- 32 days. This vaginal discharge is made up of physiological mucus and blood.
Menses starts during the age of 12-14 years and generally stop during 45-55 years. The medical terms for these are menarche and menopause.
Menarche is the first period of the female. It is a symbol that the body is prepared or in the preparation of future conception. The age of menarche is not fixed. It starts early in a hot climate and late in a cold climate.
The age of menarche also varies according to socioeconomic variations. The reason behind it is that menses depend on the hormonal changes of the body, which again depends upon physical change and mental stimulation. Nowadays, children are getting information about sexual activity from all ways which influence their hormonal changes. Hormonal change causes breast development, pubic and axial hair, and menses.
Menopause is an age where the female reproductive system no longer responses to hormonal change in the female body. Generally, menopause occurs between the age of 45-55 years.
2. Menstruation cycle:
The menstruation cycle is the preparation of the body for future pregnancy, and at the same time menstruation cycle is responsible for cyclic bleeding if pregnancy does not happen.
In the menstruation cycle, the shape of the uterus changes in response to female hormones. Every time, the uterus prepares itself for future conception and possible pregnancy. If conception fails, then the inner growth of the uterus shades, and eventually, it releases from the body through the vagina, in the form of periods.
There are four phases of menstruation, which are as follows:
a. Menstruation period:
The first phase is called the menstruation period, which is the most visible phase of the cycle. Bleeding in this phase is the slow inner growth of the previous menses cycle. The menstruation period lasts for 3-7days. There should be heavy flow in the first two days, and in the last 3-7 days, there should be a gradual decrease in the flow.
b. Proliferative phase:
The second phase starts from the 7th day of the cycle and lasts up to ovulation. In this phase, the uterus prepares itself for future conception.
c. Ovulation phase:
In this third phase of the menstruation cycle, one of the ovaries releases one mature egg cell. This process is known as ovulation. It usually happens in the mid-time of the cycle, usually the 13-16th day of the last menstruation period.
d. Secretory phase:
After ovulation, two phenomena can happen.
- If after ovulation fertilization had happened, then the uterus inner lining grows further; thus, future menses stops, and the uterus goes for pregnancy changes.
- If fertilization hadn’t happened, then the inner lining of the uterus gradually starts shading itself, and thus future menses happens.
3. Signs of menstruation:
a. Menstruation pain or period pain:
Some females experience mild to moderate pain in the thighs and backache just before the period date. It is a spasmodic pain.
b. Discharge before period:
Sudden loss of female hormones irritates the vaginal gland, and it may cause vaginal discharge before the period. This is usually watery discharge.
c. Mood changes and irritation:
As the due date for menses comes, some females may face mood swings problems. Nominal things can irritate them.
4. Menstruation problems:
The period is a hormonal cycle, and hormone level depends on physiological changes as well as psychological conditions. Thus, tension anxiety, depression are important causes of menstruation problems.
a. Menstruation pain:
Menstruation pain or period pain is one of the leading problems. Medically, period pain is known as dysmenorrhea. Mild discomfort or pain is usual, but severe pain that stops you from doing regular chores is an alarming menses problem.
b. Missed period:
Missed period assumed as the sign of pregnancy. It is also an important sign of ovaries dysfunction. Diseases like PCOD or PCOS are mostly associated with the missed period or delayed period.
c. Delay period:
The menstruation cycle varies from 21 to 35 days. That’s why periods coming 1-week earlier or 1-week delay is count as normal. Period coming after more than 7 days is count as delay period. It also indicates one or another type of hormonal insufficiency.
d. Ovulation period and anovulation period:
Menses may also come without ovulation. It is hard to diagnose if ovulation had happened in the cycle. Generally, periods with ovulation are normal and within the time limit, whereas anovulation periods are delay and painful and without proper flow.
e. Irregular menstruation:
Irregular periods are that menses in which there is not a decision due date for periods. Sometimes periods come 10 days earlier and sometimes 15 days later than the due date of periods. Occasionally, periods can also be missed.
The above article is only for knowledge purposes. Please contact your healthcare provider before using any of the above medicine or method. For any query or personal consultation according to your health condition, please contact your doctor.