Menstruation or Menses: Cycle, Phases, Signs and Problems

Every female has a monthly cycle which is commonly known as periods or month. In medical term, it is called menstruation. It is a monthly cycle of the female reproductive system due to ongoing changes of hormones in female body.

What is menstruation?

Menstruation, also called rajodharm or masik dharm in hindi, is a bloody discharge from vagina which comes after interval of 28- 32 days. This vaginal discharge is made up of physiological mucus and blood.

Menses starts during the age of 12-14 years and generally stops during 45-55 years. The medical terms for these are menarche and menopause.

1. Menarche:

Menarche is the first period of the female. It is a symbol that body is prepared or in the preparation of future conception. Age of menarche is not fixed. It starts early in hot climate and late in cold climate.

The age of menarche also varies according to socioeconomic variations. Reason behind it is that, menses depends on the hormonal changes of body which again depends upon physical change as well as mental stimulation. Now days, children are getting information about sexual activity from all ways which influence their hormonal changes. Hormonal change causes breast development, pubic and axial hair and menses.

2. Menopause:

Menopause is an age where female reproductive system no longer responses to hormonal change in the female body. Generally, menopause occurs in between the age of 45-55 years.

Menstruation cycle:

Menstruation cycle is the preparation of the body for future pregnancy and at the same time menstruation cycle is responsible for cyclic bleeding if pregnancy does not happen.

In the menstruation cycle, the shape of uterus changes in response to female hormones. Every time, uterus prepares itself for future conception and possible pregnancy. If conception fails then the inner growth of uterus shades and eventually it releases from the body through the vagina, in the form of periods.

There are four phases of menstruation, which are as follows:

1. Menstruation period:

The first phase is called menstruation period, which is the most visible phase of the cycle. Bleeding in this phase is dead inner growth of previous menses cycle. The menstruation period lasts for 3-7days. In the first two days, there should be heavy flow and in the last 3-7 days, there should be gradual decrease in the flow.

2. Proliferative phase:

The second phase starts from the 7th day of the cycle and lasts up to ovulation. In this phase, uterus prepares itself for future conception.

3. Ovulation phase:

In this third phase of the menstruation cycle, one of the ovary releases one mature egg cell. This process is known as ovulation. It usually happens in the mid time of cycle, usually 13-16th day of last menstruation period.

4. Secretory phase:

After ovulation two phenomena can happen.

  1. If after ovulation fertilization had happened then uterus inner lining grow further thus future menses stops and uterus goes for pregnancy changes.
  2. If fertilization hadn’t happened then the inner lining of uterus gradually starts shading itself and thus future menses happens.

menstruation cycle phase

Signs of menstruation:

1. Menstruation pain or period pain:

Some females experience mild to moderate pain in thighs and backache just before the period date. It is spasmodic pain.

2. Discharge before period:

Sudden loss of female hormones irritate vaginal gland and it may cause vaginal discharge before period. This is usually watery discharge.

3. Mood changes and irritation:

As the due date for menses comes some female may face mood swings problem. Nominal things can irritate them.

Menstruation problems:

Period is a hormonal cycle and hormone level depends on physiological changes as well as psychological conditions. Thus, tension anxiety, depression are important causes of menstruation problems.

1. Menstruation pain:

Menstruation pain or period pain is one of the leading problems. Medically, period pain is known as dysmenorrhea. Mild discomfort or pain is usual but severe pain which stops you for doing regular chores is an alarming menses problem.

2. Missed period:

Missed period assumed as the sign of pregnancy. It is also an important sign of ovaries dysfunction. Diseases like PCOD or PCOS mostly associated with the missed period or delayed period.

Also Read: First Trimester Of Pregnancy: What to Expect, Do’s and Don’ts

3. Delay period:

Menstruation cycle varies from 21 to 35 days. That’s why periods coming 1-week earlier or 1-week delay is count as normal. Period coming after more than 7 days is count as delay period. It also indicates one or other type of hormonal insufficiency.

4. Ovulation period and anovulation period:

Menses may also come without ovulation. It is hard to diagnose if ovulation had happened in the cycle.  Generally, periods with ovulation are normal and within time limit whereas anovulation periods are delay and painful and without proper flow.

5. Irregular menstruation:

Irregular periods are that menses in which there is not a decided due date for periods. Sometimes periods come 10 days earlier and sometimes 15 days later the due date of periods. Occasionally, periods can be missed also.


Above article is only for knowledge purpose. Please contact your healthcare provider before using any of above medicine or method. For any query or personal consultation according to your health condition Please Contact Us

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