Male Reproductive System: A Detailed Introduction

Nowadays infertility problems are increasing. In this problem, everyone talks about the problems of female but generally male infertility are discussed less but male infertility is also a major issue. But for better understanding of it, It is necessary that one should have a basic knowledge of male reproductive system. Hence, It has been described it here in detail.

So if we talk about Male Reproductive System, it is made up with complex system of external genital organ and internal genital organ. External genital organ includes Penis, Scrotum, Testis, and Spermatic Cord; whereas internal genital organs include Epididymis, Vas Deference and Accessory Sexual Glands. Male Reproductive System remains outside of Peritoneum Cavity because it requires low temperature. The temperature of human testis is about 95 Fahrenheit, whereas the temperature of normal body is 97.5 F. Some organs of male genital remain in pelvic cavity.

Male Reproductive System

Anatomy of Male Reproductive System:

As mentioned above male reproductive system is made of external and internal genital organs. The external genital organ plays an important part in sexual intercourse. So at first let’s discuss external genital organs in detail.

External Genital Organs:

1.      Penis:

It is one of the reproductive organs of male mammal species which is required for sexual pleasure, transportation of sperm from male to female reproductive organs and for urinating. Penis in Hindi is called Shishna or Lakshhana.

Other than sexual activity, it plays an important role in the urinary system because it has an opening of the urethra.

Penis Anatomy- Anatomically Penis is divided into two parts which are: the root or fixed part and the body or free part. The root part of penis is made of two erectile masses, on either side it has two crura and in middle one bulb. These parts are responsible for Penis Erection. The free part of Penis is covered by skin, and it also has erectile masses. In continuation with crura, it has on its either side Corpora Cavernosa and in middle with the continuation of bulb in has Corpus Spongiosum. During sexual intercourse, due to hormonal response Helicine Arteries (Penis Arteries) increase amount of blood flow to erectile masses of body and root part of Penis. As the space between erectile masses fills with blood, size of Penis increases. Tip of Penis is known as Glans Penis and the Skin which covers it, is known as Prepuce.

Penis sizeSize of Penis has always been the fascinating topic for men. It is also a root cause for different social myth in different societies. The average size of erect Penis is in between 12- 14 cm and flaccid Penis is much smaller than erect. It could be around 5-8 cm. An adult erect Penis with size of 7 cm is referring as Micro Penis. Size of Penis does not play much role in capacity to have sex or fertility of a man.

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2.      Scrotum:

Scrotum is kind of a bag, made of skin layers, that contains Testis, part of Spermatic Cord and Epididymis.

3.      Testis:

Testis is organ of the male reproductive system which lies outside of abdomen and produces sperm and male sex hormone. It is the main organ of Male Reproductive System. Human has a pair of Testicles. Testis is homologous with ovary in female. Human Testis develops in abdomen during Gestation life (life in mother’s womb) and starts descending downward from 3rd month of Gestation life. By the time of birth, Testis descends completely outside the abdomen. In preterm baby (born before 9 months) undescended testis is common and it does not require treatment. If the descend of Testis does not occur by the age of one year then it requires clinical investigation and treatment.

Testis Anatomy Humans have a pair of Testicles, collectively known as Testis. Testis lies within Scrotum and attaches to Pelvic Organ through the Spermatic Cord. Each Testicle has 200-300 divided part or lobules and each lobule has 2-3 cord or thread-like structure called seminiferous tubules. These tubules have main reproductive cells of men and these are responsible for the fertility of men.

Testis Function Testis performs two functions in the body, first is Spermatogenesis and second is Endocrine (hormonal) functions.

  • Spermatogenesis- Spermatogenesis is the process of development of sperm through the primitive germ cell or spermatogonia. This process completes in 4 continuous Process, which are:
  1. Proliferation– The spermatogonia cells divide by normal mitosis process and produce primary spermatocyte. This process takes seven times mitosis and produces the healthiest spermatocyte. The process takes place in seminiferous tubule of testis. Each spermatocyte contains 23 pairs of chromosomes.
  2. Growth– Primary spermatocyte grows in size.
  3. Maturation- Full growth primary spermatocyte goes to meiotic division. This causes two type of spermatid, one with 22+X other with 22+Y chromosome. Thus sex of baby always decided by father because male have two type of spermatid 22+X or 22+Y. X and Y are chromosomes of female and male respectively.
  4. Transformation– Spermatid will not divide any further, it will only transform to spermatozoa.
  • Endocrine or hormonal functions- Testis secrete androgens are male sex hormones, which are secreted by Leydig cell of Testis. There are three types of androgens first Testosterone, second Dihydrotesterone, and last Androstenedione. During fetal life, these androgens are responsible for the development of testis, during puberty they cause masculine changes in body, voice, and growth of secondary sexual characters. Other than sexual system, androgens are responsible for maintaining basal metabolic rate (BMI). It also maintains the sodium-potassium balance in body, and increases the number of red blood cells (RBC) in body.

4.      Spermatic cord:

Spermatic cord is a cord-like structure which lies in continuation with inguinal ring to testis. Its covering is made of fascia. Spermatic cord is very important because it provides support and safety to male sex organ. Spermatic cord contains artery nerve, venous supply to testis, vas deference, and lymphatic vessels.

5.      Vas deference:

It is the connecting duct between Epididymis and Ejaculatory duct. Vas deference meaning in Latin is “carry away”. It is a fibromuscular tube-like structure of male reproductive system which transports sperm from epididymis to ejaculatory duct.

During sexual orgasm, in response to hormone Vas deference shows forward peristalsis movement, which leads sperm to ejaculatory duct and ultimately, these sperms go to female’s vagina by ejaculation. During male contraceptive procedure vasectomy, this Vas deference is cut in between so that sperm cannot pass to ejaculatory duct.

Vas deference function-

Vas deference transports mature sperm, which is stored in tail of Epididymis, to the common ejaculatory duct. This process is incited by male sex hormone testosterone. In response to testosterone, Vas deference shows forward peristalsis movement. Through peristalsis movement sperm passes to common ejaculatory duct.

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6.      Epididymis:

Epididymis is a coiled structure which has been made of collectively with numerous coils of seminiferous tubules. Lower end (head part) epididymis is continuous with seminiferous tubule and the upper end (the tail part) with vas deference.

Epididymis function Epididymis works as a reservoir of Spermatozoa. Full grown Spermatozoa still does not have tail that mean these spermatozoa cannot swim in female reproductive track thus cannot fertilize. It requires 3-4 months to mature Spermatozoa.

7.      Sex glands (Accessory glands):

Male sex glands are seminal vesicles, prostate and urethral gland.  During sexual intercourse, these glands produce mix mucus watery to complete various physiological works. At the time of foreplay these gland secret viscous discharge which causes smooth and deep entry of penis in the vaginal canal, it also neutralizes vaginal ph, clean ejaculatory duct and female vagina for dirt or pathogens. During sexual orgasm, these glands cause white thick discharge. This discharge nourishes and activates spermatozoa. This discharge with spermatozoa is collectively known as semen.

So this is all about Male Reproductive System. We hope that you have liked the Article. If you have any questions regarding this so please share in comments.

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